Saturday, October 16, 2010
VHF Marine Radio Basics
They have different channels used by the U.S. Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, marine organizations and mariners of all kinds. They are not to be used on land.
Channel 9 on your VHF is a hailing channel; it is used for initiating communications. One boater will call to another on this channel for a very brief exchange and switch to an alternative channel if there is more to say.
Channel 16 is for distress calls, and is listened to around the clock by the local Coast Guard stations. To make a distress call: Say: Mayday, Mayday, Mayday. Give your name and tell them you are in a kayak and the color of that kayak, if in a group tell them the number of boats. Give your location and describe the nature of the emergency.
If you are in range you will receive instructions from authorities, otherwise you will be lucky if a near by boater hears your call. For safety reasons all vessels that have a VHF radio monitor 16 when not actively using other channels for communications.
A hand held VHF radio has a range of about five miles. You cannot send or receive a signal over high hills and tall islands or around cliff-like points of land; essentially it is line-of site and works very well over open water.
Channels for non-commercial use, such as kayakers, can be used freely for group communications. These channels are: 68, 69, 71, 72, 78 & channel 9 are used as an alternative hailing channel shared with commercial users. Do not use the other channels that are available on your VHF as they are for distinct commercial, governmental and navigational purposes. Most hand held lower power radios do not require that you have a FCC license. This applies only to small recreational vessels and kayaks will fall under this category. Unlicensed operators are not allowed to use a radio to talk to foreign vessels or use the radio in waters of another country.
Another handy property of the VHF radio is access to NOAA weather broadcasts. You can get a weather report round the clock in a continuous loop recording that is updated regularly. The reports are often marine oriented such as expressing wind in knots, so you should try to familiarize your self with the lingo and geographical locations particular to the reports that you will be listening to prior to venturing into the field. There are several weather frequencies or channels to choose from abbreviated as WX. You will likely only be able to pick up one or two broadcasting stations in any one place.
In group paddling situations it is wise to have a lead kayaker and a sweep kayaker each with their own radio. This will allow the front of the pack to talk with the back of the pack to help keep the group together and in communication. Other paddlers in the group should be encouraged to use their radios too if they have them. At the start of your trip assign a working channel from the non-commercial channels for your group to use. Make sure all who carry a VHF in your group know what the working channel is, and know that they can fall back on 16 or 9 as a hailing channel if necessary.
It is customary and required that users of VHF radios monitor channel 16 for safety reasons. A radio watch on channel 16 and or 9 in busy boating channels would be wise to keep abreast of the movements of large vessels that are hard to predict their speed and direction. Also there is a chance that communicating with boat operators would be helpful top all those involved.
As kayakers, with low watt radios and limited battery life, you will likely be of little assistance in an emergency situation. Therefore I would suggest that maintaining a radio watch of 16 for that purpose would be a personal judgment call. Monitor it if you want to hold to the regulations, or use a scan function that many radios are equipped with, or don't be bothered with it. I do not believe there would be any consequences for a casual recreational user, as long as you can sleep at night. ;)
If your radio is equipped with a low power setting, as many are, use it when ever possible. This makes good sense. Not only will you conserve battery power, but also you will reduce polluting the frequency and make it easy for others to use the same frequency in your area.
It is customary and required that you use your radio call sign at the beginning and end of each transmission. Assuming that you do not have a FCC license, and call sign issued by the FCC, the point is moot. You could identify your self with a handle in that manner. In my experience this protocol is not often followed even among the bigger vessels.
It is also recommended to keep communication brief and avoid chit-chat. While this makes sense to some degree, to save batteries and reduce pollution, do not feel inhibited to use your radios to communicate with your comrades of things that are of importance to you. This could be to find out how tired and hungry the group is, let the leader know you are sea sick, trade tips with fishermen, and of course report on topics of interest and safety. While it is wise to keep a group of paddlers close enough to shout to each other for safety reasons, Sit-On paddlers will tend not to bunch up as close as Sit-In paddlers. Sit-In paddlers need to be close because they often require assisted rescues. However such rescues are almost unheard of among Sit-On paddlers.
Select a radio that is considered waterproof and protect it in a waterproof radio bag. If you carry a VHF keep it handy where you can reach it. Ideally on your person (I tuck mine into my vest) but a deck bag, center hatch or backrest pocket is good too. Use the lanyard, the radio will sink like a stone, add a clip and or lanyard as necessary. Most radios that are billed as waterproof are actually only guaranteed to be waterproof, meaning the company will replace a radio that has been soaked enough to kill it. Kayaking is a wetter endeavor than these radios are meant for. Engineering a radio to truly waterproof is quite a challenge, so make sure to protect it in a waterproof bag made for radio use regardless to the claims. You will be very wet indeed when you may find yourself in dire need of the radio.
There are many makers of bags for radios, select one carefully. Make sure it will fit your radio, they come in many sizes. Check to see if it is for a right hand antenna or left hand sided antenna, believe me this makes a difference. Most VHF radios will have a knob or two that needs to be manipulated with your fingers, therefore most radio bags have a finger pocket, so you can put your finger in the bag and with the thumb out side twist the knob. With out this feature it will be almost impossible to the adjust volume, turn on the radio and use other features. This pocket will sometimes get inside out and look like a little nose or ear, just push it back in. Bags for radios will seal at one end with a variety of closers. I am sure most are up to snuff, but quality counts. A compact bag (and radio) will help you keep it handy, ready to use. These bags are not immune to leaks! Inspect carefully before and after each use. I carry a small peel and stick patch, like the kind used for bike tires right inside the bag. They are clear, so I can still see the radio and its features. They must be applied while the bag is dry. The patch is temporary, meaning it will last for your trip, but next season it will likely be coming off. A permanent patch can be achieved with a vinyl repair kit, for air mats & beach balls, depending of the materials, use a clear patch.
I have mentioned battery life above, and I feel that it needs more addressing. Many VHF radios have rechargeable batteries. Some can use standard disposable batteries. If your radio uses a rechargeable you must take good care of it. Follow all the instructions on discharging, recharging and maintenance to keep your battery at optimal performance. Eventually it will finally die for good, about two years, maybe more, regardless of care and usage. On extended touring trips it may be necessary to take more than one battery for each radio. Most batteries can last a couple of days, depending on use, before the battery needs a recharge. A spare can be helpful, as there are few, if any at all, places to charge up on a wild coastline. This of course necessitates conservation of power. You may even be relying on the VHF for weather forecasting. If you are lucky you may have a radio that can use disposable batteries and you can take along as many as you feel you will need. It would still be wise to use the radio conservatively in a wildness setting far from stores. For long-term storage of a radio, remove the batteries. Whatever power source you have, make sure the radio is fully charged before any trip. Put in new disposable batteries, or make sure you have a fresh charge on you rechargeable. Rechargeable batteries will loose a charge over time.
There are many channels that your radio can work with. Above I have identified the recreational use aka non-commercial channels, but you might want to know what the other channels are for and why you don't need to use them. Channel 6 is for ships to communicate weather, navigational and other safety related warnings and use for rescue operations. Channel 22 is for the use of the United States Coast Guard. Channel 13 is for ships to communicate about maneuvering, to avoid collisions and to talk to draw bridge operators. Channels 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20, 65, 66, 73, 77, & 77 are for messages concerning handling, movements and safety of vessels near ports, harbors and other limited space waterways. Commercial vessels (Working boats; fishing, ferry, barge, cruise ships, etc..) use channels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 19, 67, 79, 80 & 88. State and Local government authorities use channel 17. Mariners sometimes need to place a phone call while at sea. They use the Marine Operator channels; 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88. Environmental conditions are broadcast (only) on channel 15, such as sea conditions, hazards to navigation and notices to mariners.
Bear in mind also that the radio frequencies are a public place. You should exercise courtesy and always speak in a manner that is socially acceptable. I believe that use of bad language is fineable crime, so keep it clean.
The above writings are not my words. I compiled things that I felt someone new to VHF's should know. They seem to be right on the mark.
New to Kayaking?
Don't know how to get started? Which boat to buy? How to learn without embarrassment? What if it tips over? Do I have to roll the kayak?
We were all beginners once and we'd be happy to help you with the basics. Before you even buy a boat, why not stop in at our monthly meeting (see the Paddlers Calendar) for some friendly advice from experienced paddlers. Whether you're interested in calm afternoons on one of Michigan's beautiful lakes and rivers or two weeks in the wilderness, we can help - we've been there.
To ask any questions or to contact the group for any reason, please send an e-mail to Eastcoastpaddlers@gmail.com